Case Studies


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Investment dealers are responsible for unauthorized off-book transactions but consumers must remain diligent

Posted on Monday, July 16, 2018 01:45 PM

Key Learnings

  • Investment advisors must conduct all securities trading through their investment firm.
  • Firms are often responsible for investment recommendations their advisors make outside of the firm (off-book transactions) even if the firm was not aware of the investment.
  • Consumers should make efforts to know that their investment firm is aware of, and approves of, the investment being made.


Ms. G sold her home in 2015. She had no investment experience. She had recently been introduced to a financial...

Understanding the terms and conditions of your financial agreements

Posted on Sunday, June 04, 2017 12:45 PM

Key Learnings:

  • Be sure to understand the exact requirements of your loan repayment plan.
  • Thoroughly review your bank statements so that you remain up to date on all account activity.
  • When you sign a Personal Credit Agreement, you acknowledge receipt of and agree to be bound by the terms and conditions contained in that Agreement.

In January of 2014, Mr. G signed a Credit Agreement when he obtained a mortgage of $122,000 and a Line of Credit (LOC) of $39,600, both secured by a property he owned and planned...


Posted on Thursday, January 26, 2017 12:30 PM

Key Learnings:

  • While some credit cards offer enhanced protection for timeshare-related transactions, not all do so. It is important that you be aware of your agreement details before taking any financial risks.
  • When you review the charges on your banking and credit card statements, check to make sure all payments were authorized, but also check to ensure all information is consistent with the purchases you made.

Ms. B and her friends attended a presentation for real estate investment opportunities in...

Shopping Online

Posted on Thursday, January 26, 2017 12:00 PM

Key Learnings:

  • Before buying online, make sure you understand the rules of the online payment method you have chosen.
  • Interac e-Transfer does not offer purchaser protection for fraudulent transactions that are authorized. 

Mr. H agreed to purchase a restaurant-size smoker from a private seller on Kijiji. He transferred $8,000 to the seller, via multiple authorized Interac e-Transfers. The seller had promised to ship the smoker to Mr. H upon receipt of the full payment. However, Mr. H never received...

Small Business Employee Forged Cheques

Posted on Tuesday, December 10, 2013 11:45 AM

Mr. C owned an automotive parts store where he employed an administrative assistant with responsibility for payroll, bank statement reconciliations, and other accounting functions. Over a period of four years, she embezzled $80,000 by writing company cheques to herself or fictitious third parties, depositing them into her personal account using her bank's automated bank machine (ABM).

She hid the transactions from management by manipulating the company's financial records. An independent audit by...

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